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Journal Scheme

Structure of the online journal

The online journal features complex structuring. In this paragraph, it is explained what kind of areas (fields) and sub-areas (sections) it consists of. Regardless of the submitted contribution and the accentuations made by the editorial team, only some of those fields and sections will be covered. Moreover, this paragraph points out which particular objectives are being pursued in a field or section and who is responsible for the editorial supervision.

Exhibition

In this field, the first main objective is highlighted: all types of connections between science and visual arts are given the opportunity to present their artistic work. In this way, the understanding of those activities is being facilitated and enhanced.

This field is designed as a permanent online Exhibition that is updated and extended frequently, in order to obtain a complete overview in the medium and long term.

Regarding art, the online journal mainly focusses on visual arts (painting, sculpting, installation art, photography, film/video, performance). Nevertheless, other forms of art are being referred to several times.

The editorial team is endeavored to organize the Exhibition section in a way that is as attractive as possible for visual artists. The following regulations support this objective:

  • Artists can present works in w/k that they have produced in recent years – such as those bearing a relation to science or academic research – following the design guidelines prescribed by the editorial board. In addition, for current works the online journal is planning an experimental section that is not yet available for use in the kick-off phase on 31 October 2016. For this, design guidelines still need to be defined. In this experimental section an artist can for instance post a video of an action specifically created for the online journal.
    Furthermore, presentations of this kind can also be supplemented with a normal text contribution explaining the artistic experiment.
  • Additionally, artists are given the opportunity to amplify the presentations of their work by adding an (email) interview. Adding an interview is not obligatory and only included by request.
  • Often, the presentation of work in the Exhibition field will be limited to several artistic creations from certain series, selected by the artist. Therefore, the introduction of a series catalogue has been planned: Artists are given the opportunity to expand their contribution by documentation of those series that refer to the contribution by means of selected images.
  • The list of w/k-related institutions – in other words those concerned with the connection of whatever kind between science and art – will be incorporated in the exhibition domain: galleries and museums that occasionally hold exhibitions on connections of this kind, foundations that also or predominantly support such connections, and opportunities for grants and scholarships arising from this context.
Science-related Art

Those artists interested in science or who deal with scientific theories methods and results in one way or another have been in great demand over the past decades. This section will feature their work. It is the goal of this section to present the entire spectrum of visual arts related to science. This is to point out what those kind of artists actually do. The same holds true for the other sections of Exhibition. Together with Jens Helmus and Peter Tepe, Luzia Hürzeler is responsible for this section.

With regard to science-related art, the online journal features a specific profile which also entails clear dissociations. The following artists do not belong to this field:

– those who primarily deal with such disciplines claiming that their scientific insights are highly controversial, e.g. esoteric psychology.
– those who are primarily concerned with religious or non-religious ideologies (e.g. Christianity, Buddhism, anthroposophy, atheism).
– those who primarily deal with literary writers and texts; however, artists who have closely examined e.g. literary theories and used them for their artistic work are eligible.

Artistic Research

Terms like “artistic research” “art research”, “art through research”, “aesthetic research” and other similar concepts have been used for several years now and have even reached the status of fashionable terms. “Artistic research and the different variations of this term that come with it have become much quoted as well as questioned catchphrases that have also been included in the reflection and practice of art schools and academic institutions as well as in (European) political guidelines for culture and the creative economy. They have resulted in the establishment of new institutes, journals, societies, funding programs etc. At the same time, scientists, scholars of social sciences and humanities and also artists as well have a critical attitude towards the concepts, forms and programs of artistic research.”[1] This section features work carried out by artists who rely on concepts of artistic research. Only some concepts of artistic research show a reference to science; these variations are of major interest as far as this online journal is concerned. However, the other variations are also taken into consideration, in order to be able to set the clearest boundaries possible.

Border crossers between Science and Visual Arts

The online journal refers to those individuals who work in both fields: in science as well as in visual arts as border crossers. In this section, they will exhibit their artistic work; those exhibits might have a content-related reference to their scientific activities; however, this is not mandatory.

The artistic work of border crossers will only be considered if their artistic activity features a certain level of artistic professionalism and independence. This is contrasted by dealing with visual arts on an amateurish level that does not go beyond the obtainment of basic skills. The project is not about scientists who produce art as a hobby. The Board of Editors will therefore check whether this requirement is met.

For the selection process, It is not important whether the person crossing those predefined borders is a mathematician, natural scientist, medical doctor, social or cultural scientist, scholar in the humanities or philosopher, nor does it matter where or how they work (at a university (of applied sciences), a research institute, in the corporate sector, as a private scholar etc.).

Cooperation between Scientists and Visual Artists

This section is to present artistic work resulting from all the above-mentioned forms of cooperation as well as to explain their scientific incorporation. It will additionally feature a historical retrospect on earlier forms of cooperation between scientists and artists within the field of visual arts – one example being painters and draftsmen who participated in research expeditions in order to create illustrations of plants and animals hitherto unknown in Europe. The concepts of aesthetic science serve as a more recent example. Martin Tröndle understands it as being “a process using artists and their specific knowledge and competences and applying them to other contexts outside of the art system: Artistic competences and procedures are combined with those from science in order to generate new knowledge regarding certain problems. […] Forms of perceptual insight in a scientific context in order to generate new knowledge […] are crucial. […] The production of a different knowledge that would not have been possible with solely artistic or scientific methods takes place as a social practice in the research process.”[2]

Artistic Components in Scientific Teaching and in Publications

In this section, scientists present the aforementioned artistic components and explain what significance they have within their teaching and research. Additionally, the historical retrospect on earlier constellations of this kind is discussed.

Meral Alma and Peter Tepe are responsible for the three sections that were listed lastly.

Normally, the artists and/or scientists themselves present activities relevant for the field of Exhibition. In special cases – for instance artists who have passed away or who are severely ill, or when the phenomenon stems from the distant past – others can take over on their behalf.

In this online journal, the presentation of artistic work is systematically connected to its scientific research, taking place within the fields of Art History and Art Theory. This approach promotes scientific progress. The entire design enables artists, scientists and the interested public to follow different interests and to connect them to one another.

Art History

In this field, those artistic activities from the past and the present belonging to the interfaces between science and visual arts will be closely examined in individual studies carried out by art historians and art scholars e.g. in single case studies.

  • Kunibert Bering (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf) and Rolf Niehoff, who both belong to our Group of Cooperation Partners mentioned several potential topics during a conversation: Piero della Francesca; Andrea Pozzo in S. Ignazio in Rome; Athanasius Kircher; “Pictor doctus” in the Middle Ages; from the 16th century: Vasari contra Gian Paolo Lomazzo and Giulio Delminio Camillo; Ruskin: The Stones of Venice; Prinzhorn; Max Imdahl; Mandelbrot sets: computer-generated “art”; Gerhard Richter: Silitium.
The Core Area

This section deals with the art-historical and/or art-scientific research of all forms of connections between science and visual. Thereby, those connections that have already been presented in the Exhibition field are granted special attention.

Self-portraits and Portraits of Border Crossers between Science and all Types of Art

All kinds of border crossers between science and art (including theatre directors, film makers, musicians etc.) represent their individual development in a self-portrait. Portraits created by third parties – this particularly applies for border crossers who have passed away – can also be presented here. Irene Daum is responsible for this section which also features forms of art that are not presented in the Exhibition field.

Self-portraits and Portraits of Science-related Artists and Artistic Researchers

Portraits or self-portraits of science-related artists will also be provided.

Interviews with Outstanding Scientists and Artists

The program will also include interviews with relevant personalities, e.g. with important border crossers between science and visual arts, outstanding science-related artists and renowned scientists. Irene Daum and Peter Tepe are responsible for this section. It is necessary to make a clear distinction between those independent interviews and the ones published in the Exhibition section. The latter are always related to presentations of artistic work.

Art Theory

In the past few years, the relations between science and art have been extensively examined (once more). Collections of articles like Kunst und Wissenschaft[3], Kunstforschung als ästhetische Wissenschaft[4], ArteFakte: Wissen ist Kunst – Kunst ist Wissen[5] as well as various texts on the Internet are proof of this.[6] In order to drive forward the contemplation of the relation between science and art in general, a theoretical forum in which all aspects of this relation can be touched upon is implemented.

Through the close connection with the work shown in the Exhibition section an objectification of discussion – particularly regarding the relationship between science and visual arts – can be achieved. E.g., it is reasonable to use individual artistic activities as a starting point. On the basis of many presentations of this kind, we can then draw (more) general conclusions about the relations between science and visual art. This is to counteract rash generalizations, which can also be found in specialist literature frequently. The reflection on the relationship between science and visual arts receives new impulses through the presentation of this artistic work in the Exhibition field as well as through the concurrent research in Art History and Art Theory. Therefore, scientific progress is likely to occur.

Art Theory consists of several sections:

The Core Area

Reflecting on the relations between science and art in general as well as on visual arts in particular has its place in the Core Area. The theoretical claims of concepts in artistic research are also subject of discussion: Here, the objective is to reach an informed evaluation of current concepts in artistic research and aesthetic science. Alexander Becker and Isabelle Keßels are responsible for the Core Area.

In addition to this, there are five independent sections:

Neuroscience and (Visual) Art

This section, supervised by Irene Daum, contains and discusses neuroscientific contributions concerning brain research and the exploration of arts in general and of visual arts in particular.

In addition, studies on the relationship between psychology and (visual) art are published here.

Cognitive Theory of Aesthetic Experience and (Visual) Art

Peter Tepe is responsible for this section. The concepts of cognitive hermeneutics[7] and cognitive theory of ideology[8] of his own devising are used for the exploration of the aesthetic experience and the arts. This section also serves as a forum for critical discussions.

Science-related Art from a Scientific Perspective

In this section the science-related artist are being investigated in greater detail: It is questioned how resorting to scientific theories, methods and results taken by the artist is evaluated from the point of view of the respective scientific field. The following are just some of the questions dealt with: How comprehensively and extensively is the respective artist concerned with science? How does the artistic use of the acquired knowledge and skills work? Does their reception of a scientific theory result in any misunderstandings? An artist interested in science and dealing with physics in an extensive way might interpret essential points about the theoretical elements wrongly. However, this does not necessarily mean that he or she cannot use the misunderstood physical theory in a productive way for their art – this is a form of productive misunderstanding.

Scientific Activities of Artists of Other Forms of Art

The online journal mainly focuses on visual arts. With regard to the scientific activities of the border crossers, however, it is reasonable to also include other forms of art. Not only painters can practice e.g. psychological, biological or literary research as a sideline – writers, musicians and so on can as well. In this section, the scientific work of border crossers from other forms of art is presented and discussed. Sometimes, there are overlaps with the cases presented in the Portraits of Border Crossers between Science and all Types of Art.

Aesthetic Components in Scientific Research and in the Evaluation of Theories

In scientific research, viewpoints play a role. Those can be considered aesthetic in a broader sense. Thus, a researcher confronted with two theoretical approaches that produce comparable solutions, will often prefer the more elegant and/or “smooth” one that requires fewer basic assumptions. The same holds true for the subsequent evaluation of theories e.g. by philosophers of science.

This section deals with all aesthetic components that can occur during research processes and the evaluation of theories.

Classifying the Evaluation of the Publisher

The evaluation of the publisher What connections are there between science and (visual) arts? strives to capture the connections between both fields in their entirety, to clearly distinguish them from one another and to arrange them systematically, in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the field. Content-wise, this progressively developing text can indeed be assigned to the section of Art Theory. However, due to the fact that the text holds a fundamental status, it will be removed from this field and can be found on the homepage, right next to Objectives & Structure.

Some might think that such terminological differentiations are indeed of relevance for the scientists dealing with the interfaces between science and visual arts, but not for the artists: “they are too abstract”, “they have no connection to artistic work”. There might be artists who will react in such a way, but such objections are unsubstantiated. Artists that refer to any kind of science are rather confronted with the question: “Where is my artistic work situated within the transition between science and art as a whole?” With the help of The Evaluation of the Publisher, it will be easier for artists interested in science to find their place within this field.

Overall it should be noted that there is no other Art Theory forum with a comparable profile.

Additional Aspects of the Online Journal

The presentation of the profile is rounded off by additional points. 

Allocation and Networking of Contributions

Firstly, with every new contribution it is clearly displayed which of the three fields (Exhibition, Art History, Art Theory) it belongs to and to which section (e.g. science-related art) it is assigned. Secondly, the subject of the presentation or text is made recognizable using key words. Thirdly – if available – conjunctions are linked to thematically-related contributions which have been published earlier.

Comments

Users have the opportunity to use the commenting function in order to react to contributions and to start or engage in a discussion. The comment option can always be found at the end of each posting.

The Board of Editors has decided on trying out a free and open commenting process for now. In order to participate, the commenter is only asked to prove that he or she is a real person, stating a valid e-mail address. However, should this freedom and openness regarding commenting be misused to a considerable extent (e.g. insults or spam), the Board of Editors reserves the right to introduce a critical selection of the comments before publication.

Feedback for Contributors

After each round of publication and at an appropriate time, the contributors will receive feedback: They will e.g. be informed about the submitted comments and they will be asked to react to them. 

Talent Promotion

In all three fields – Exhibition, Art History and Art Theory – young academics also get their chance. To enable the users to correctly classify those contributions, they are tagged using a header that reads Newcomer. Art students who have already been intensively dealing with sciences during their artistic training or directly thereafter will be presented, just as young scientists and individuals who have been artistically productive during their scientific studies or after their first degree, for instance, while working on their doctoral thesis will be.

Encouragement for Exhibitions

The online journal aims to encourage curators to conceptualize exhibitions about the different interfaces between science and art, e.g. about border crossers. The results can then be presented in the Exhibition field. In addition, some members of the Board of Editors are willing to participate in exhibition projects. However, the Board of Editors’ main objective is to create and maintain an appealing online journal; the conception and realization of exhibitions is not among their main tasks.

Encouragement for Events

The online journal wishes to inspire and connect individuals who represent different forms of the relation between science and art – for instance within the framework of meetings, panel discussions and specific exhibition projects – in order to investigate what arises as a result in an unbiased way. So it is conceivable that border crossers between science and art (considering all art forms) are better in solving certain types of discovery and organizational problems than others.

Reviews

Discussions of new publications important for the online journal are published. They are always assigned to one of the three fields of expertise and a certain section.

Short Articles

References to publications, exhibitions, institutions, promotion possibilities, etc. that are relevant for the online journal appear not only in the publication rounds, but also in between; at that, social networks like Facebook are being integrated. Meral Alma and Jens Helmus are responsible for this informational section.

Gathering Media Reactions

All reactions concerning the online journal in general as well as individual contributions, e.g. newspaper articles, are collected and made accessible to users.

Connections to Mythos-Magazin

The board of editors works closely together with the editors of the online journal Mythos-Magazin, which is also published by Peter Tepe; the journal’s Managing Editor is Annette Greif. This periodical consists of three fields: Erklärende Hermeneutik (explanatory hermeneutics), Mythosforschung (research on myths) and Ideologieforschung (research on ideology) – each of them divided up into an academic and a student’s forum – and the historically focused forum Zur Geschichte des Schwerpunkts Mythos, Ideologie und Methoden (on the history of the research focus myth, ideology and methods). In the latter, the text 25 Jahre Schwerpunkt Mythos, Ideologie und Methoden … und kein Ende (25 years of the research focus myth, ideology and methods … and no end in sight), which provides a comprehensive overview of this field that was published in September 2013.[9]

The board of editors’ plan to also have young academics sound their voices replicates the practice of the Mythos-Magazin, where 291 student term papers and final dissertations were published between 2007 to 2014… and more are regularly coming in.

 


[1] J.-B. Joly/J. Warmers: Künstler und Wissenschaftler als reflexive Praktiker – ein Vorwort. In: M. Tröndle/J. Warmers (eds.): Kunstforschung als ästhetische Wissenschaft. Beiträge zur interdisziplinären Hybridisierung von Wissenschaft und Kunst. Bielefeld 2012, pp. IX–XII, here p. IX. Our translation.
[2] M. Tröndle: Zum Unterfangen einer ästhetischen Wissenschaft eine Einleitung. In: Tröndle/Warmers (eds.): Kunstforschung als ästhetische Wissenschaft (ibid. 2), pp. XV–XVIII, here p. XVI.
[3] D. Mersch/M. Ott (ed.): Kunst und Wissenschaft. Munich 2007.
[4] Tröndle/Warmers (ed.): Kunstforschung als ästhetische Wissenschaft (ibid. 2).
[5] H. Parzinger/S. Aue/G. Stock (ed.): ArteFakte: Wissen ist Kunst Kunst ist Wissen. Reflexionen und Praktiken wissenschaftlichkünstlerischer Begegnungen. Bielefeld 2014.
[6] Heinrich Böll Stiftung (ed.): Kunst und Wissenschaft. Politik und Moderne. Volume V.
Online at www.boell-bremen.de/dateien/53464ba088e09569b0d0.pdf  (as per Apr.28, 2014)
G. Gohlke: “Fortschritt ist Ansichtssache”. Die Wiederannäherung nach der Scheidung von Kunst und Wissenschaft Ende des 20. Jahrhunderts.
Online at www.wissensgesellschaft.org/themen/kunstwissenschaft/ansichtssache.pdf (as per Apr.28, 2014). Unpaginated.
W. Hagner: Von Kunst und Wissenschaft.
Online at www.ethlife.ethz.ch/archive_articles/100825_kol6_hagner/index  (as per Apr.28, 2014). Unpaginated.
G. Schulz: Kunst und Wissenschaft.
Online at www.uni-saarland.de/fak7/schulz/Vortraege/Kunst%20und%20Wissenschaft.pdf  (as per Apr.28, 2014)
F. Zöllner: Kunst und Wissenschaft: Leonardo zwischen „automimesis“ und Proportionslehre.
Online at http://denkstroeme.de/heft-3/s_42-57_zoellner  (as per 28/04/2014). Unpaginated.
Author unknown: Kunst als Wissenschaft – Wissenschaft als Kunst.
Online at www.wissenschaft-als-kunst.de/de/news/index.html?NID=2001861 (as per Apr.28, 2014). Unpaginated.
Author unknown: Was passiert, wenn Kunst auf Wissenschaft trifft?
Online at https://idw-online.de/de/event42696 (as per 13/06/2016)
[7] P. Tepe: Kognitive Hermeneutik. Textinterpretation ist als Erfahrungswissenschaft möglich. With a supplementary volume on CD. Würzburg 2007.
[8] P. Tepe: Ideologie. Berlin/Boston 2012.
[9] In: Mythos-Magazin.
Online at www.mythos-magazin.de/geschichtedesschwerpunkts/pt_25Jahre.pdf
[10] In: Mythos-Magazin.
Online at www.mythos-magazin.de/geschichtedesschwerpunkts/pt_25Jahre-Dokumentation1.pdf